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美国法学会《侵权法重述•第三次•责任分担》(中英文对照参考译本)
[2010/7/18 14:08:38][阅读3958次]

Restatement of the Law, Third, Torts: Apportionment of Liability(Rule Sections
 
Copyright © 2000 by The American Law Institute
 
译者说明:本文系作者参与2006年中国法学会部级法学研究课题“中国侵权责任法立法研究”(立项编号:CLS(2006)YB14)过程中,为学习和研究目的而进行的翻译。本文件仅供个人学习、研究之用,仅供参考,请勿作他用,后果自负。本文件部分条文的翻译参考了许传玺、石宏等译《侵权法重述——纲要》(法律出版社2006年版)1-4、7、8、10-12、14-17、23、26条条文和相应条文的部分“COMMENTS & ILLUSTRATIONS”、“REPORTERS NOTES”的译文,特此致谢。相关译文具体细节请参见注释。

第一题 [1]:比较责任的基本规则

Topic 1- Basic Rules of Comparative Responsibility

第一条 本重述所涉及的问题与诉因

本重述讨论在两位或多位责任人之间分配责任的问题。本重述适用于关于死亡、人身损害 [2](包括精神损害或配偶权),或对有形财产的物理伤害的所有主张(包括法律诉讼与和解),无论其责任基础如何。
1 Issues and Causes of Action Addressed by This Restatement
This Restatement addresses issues of apportioning liability among two or more persons. It applies to all claims [3] (including lawsuits and settlements) for death, personal injury (including emotional distress or consortium), or physical damage to tangible property, regardless of the basis of liability.

第二条 责任的合同性限制

在合同法、诉讼请求的实体法规则和可适用的解释规则允许的情况下,原告与他人之间免除该他人对未来伤害负责的合同,将阻碍原告从该他人处获得对该伤害的赔偿。与原告的过失不同,一项有效的合同性责任限制并不构成事实调查人向任何当事人或他人分配责任份额的理由。
2 Contractual Limitations on Liability
When permitted by contract law, substantive law governing the claim, and applicable rules of construction, a contract between the plaintiff and another person absolving the person from liability for future harm bars the plaintiff,s recovery [4] from that person for the harm. Unlike a plaintiff,s negligence, a valid contractual limitation on liability does not provide an occasion for the factfinder to assign a percentage of responsibility to any party or other person.

第三条 定义原告过失的各种严格学说 [5]均已被废止

原告的过失应依据适用于被告过失的标准来定义。特别适用于定义原告过失的各种严格学说均已被废止。
3 Ameliorative Doctrines for Defining Plaintiff’s Negligence Abolished
Plaintiff,s negligence is defined by the applicable standard for a defendant,s negligence. Special ameliorative doctrines for defining plaintiff,s negligence are abolished.

第四条 对原告过失和法律原因的证明

被告负有证明原告过失的举证责任,并可采用原告为证明被告过失可以采用的任何方法。除本重述第五题另有规定外,被告亦负有举证责任证明原告过失——如果原告存在任何过失——构成原告所受损害的一项法律原因。
4 Proof of Plaintiff’s Negligence and Legal Causation
The defendant has the burden to prove plaintiff,s negligence, and may use any of the methods a plaintiff may use to prove defendant,s negligence. Except as otherwise provided in Topic 5, the defendant also has the burden to prove that the plaintiff,s negligence, if any, was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s damages.

第五条 可归责于原告的过失

假设原告是被告的角色,他人的过失便可以归责于他的话,那么该他人的过失可归责于原告。除非该他人的过失不是仅仅因为原告对机动车享有的所有权,或对该他人使用该机动车的许可而归责于原告。
5 Negligence Imputed to a Plaintiff
The negligence of another person is imputed to a plaintiff whenever the negligence of the other person would have been imputed had the plaintiff been a defendant, except the negligence of another person is not imputed to a plaintiff solely because of the plaintiff,s ownership of a motor vehicle or permission for its use by the other person.

第六条 当原告获得的赔偿派生于一项被告对第三人实施了侵权行为的主张和包含于基于遗存诉因法的主张时,过失可归责于原告 [6]

(a)当原告声称一项派生于被告对第三人实施侵权行为的主张时,在该项主张中该第三人的过失可归责于原告。原告的赔偿额同样因为其自身的过失而被减少。
(b)根据遗存诉因法,遗产被继承人 [7](生前)的过失在其生存时对其赔偿额影响的同样范围内,影响遗产可获得的赔偿额。遗产受益人的过失不能仅仅因为受益人作为受益人的法律地位而归责于财产。
6 Negligence Imputed to a Plaintiff When the Plaintiff,s Recovery Derives from a Claim That the Defendant Committed a Tort Against a Third Person and in Claims Under Survival Statutes
(a) When a plaintiff asserts a claim that derives from the defendant,s tort against a third person, negligence of the third person is imputed to the plaintiff with respect to that claim. The plaintiff,s recovery is also reduced by the plaintiff,s own negligence.
(b) The negligence of an estate,s decedent affects the estate [8],s recovery under a survival statute to the same extent that it would have affected the decedent,s recovery had the decedent survived. The negligence of a beneficiary of the decedent,s estate is not imputed to the estate merely because of the beneficiary,s status as a beneficiary.

第七条 在原告遭受不可分损害时原告过失 [9]的效力

若原告的过失(或原告应为其过失负责的其他人的过失)构成原告遭受的不可分伤害的一项法律原因,则原告的所获得的赔偿额将依据事实调查人分配给原告(或原告应为其过失负责的该他人)的责任份额相应比例地减少。
7 Effect of Plaintiff’s Negligence When Plaintiff Suffers an Indivisible Injury
Plaintiff,s negligence (or the negligence of another person for whose negligence the plaintiff is responsible) that is a legal cause of an indivisible injury to the plaintiff reduces the plaintiff,s recovery in proportion to the share of responsibility the factfinder assigns to the plaintiff (or other person for whose negligence the plaintiff is responsible).

第八条 分配责任份额时应考虑的因素

向法律责任已被确定的各方分配责任百分比时应考虑的因素包括:
(a)该方造成风险之行为的性质,包括任何对该行为所造成风险的认识或漠视,以及任何对该行为所造成伤害的意图;及
(b)该方造成风险之行为与该伤害之间因果关系的强度。
8 Factors for Assigning Shares of Responsibility
Factors for assigning percentages of responsibility to each person whose legal responsibility has been established include
(a) the nature of the person,s risk-creating conduct, including any awareness or indifference with respect to the risks created by the conduct and any intent with respect to the harm created by the conduct; and
(b) the strength of the causal connection between the person,s risk-creating conduct and the harm.

第九条 判决的抵销

如果同一诉讼中的双方当事人都相互负有责任,那么各方都有权抵消对方享有的任何(相应)赔偿额;除非一方或双方都有责任保险,那么抵消不会减少责任保险人应支付的金额,适用的法律规范或制定法另有规定的除外。
9 Offsetting Judgments
If two parties are liable to each other in the same suit, each party is entitled to a setoff of any recovery owed by the other party, except that, in cases in which one or both of the parties has liability insurance, setoff does not reduce the payment of a liability insurer unless an applicable rule of law or statute [10] so provides.

第二题:数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

Topic 2- Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm

第十条 连带责任 [11]的效力

当依据适用的法律,有多人对某一受害人承担连带责任时,该受害人可以起诉任一负连带责任者并从该人处获得可获得的全部损害赔偿 [12]
10 Effect of Joint and Several Liability
When, under applicable law, some persons are jointly and severally liable to an injured person, the injured person may sue for and recover the full amount of recoverable damages from any jointly and severally liable person.

第十一条 单独责任 [13]的效力

当依据适用的法律,某人对受害人的不可分损害承担单独责任时,该受害人仅可以获得该负单独责任者在该受害人应得赔偿额中的比较责任份额。
11 Effect of Several Liability
When, under applicable law, a person is severally liable to an injured person for an indivisible injury, the injured person may recover only the severally liable person,s comparative-responsibility share of the injured person,s damages.

第十二条 故意侵权行为人

每个实施以故意为要件的侵权行为的人,均应对该侵权行为作为法律原因造成的任何不可分损害承担连带责任。
12 Intentional Tortfeasors
Each person who commits a tort that requires intent is jointly and severally liable for any indivisible injury legally caused by the tortious conduct.

第十三条 替代责任 [14]

无论对导致不可分损害的独立侵权行为人适用的规则是连带责任或者单独责任,基于他人侵权性的行为而承担责任的人,对分配给该他人的整个比较责任份额承担责任。
13 Vicarious Liability
A person whose liability is imputed based on the tortious acts of another is liable for the entire share of comparative responsibility assigned to the other, regardless of whether joint and several liability or several liability is the governing rule for independent tortfeasors who cause an indivisible injury.

第十四条 因未就某一故意侵权行为的具体风险对原告提供保护而承担责任的侵权行为人

因未就某一故意侵权行为的具体风险对他人提供保护而承担责任的一方,应在分配给他的比较责任份额之外,对分配给故意侵权行为人的比较责任份额承担连带责任。
14 Tortfeasors Liable for Failure to Protect the Plaintiff from the Specific Risk of an Intentional Tort
A person who is liable to another based on a failure to protect the other from the specific risk of an intentional tort is jointly and severally liable for the share of comparative responsibility assigned to the intentional tortfeasor in addition to the share of comparative responsibility assigned to the person.

第十五条 共同 [15]行为人

当多人因共同行为而承担责任时,所有各方应对分配给参与该共同行为的每一方的比较责任份额承担连带责任。
15 Persons Acting in Concert
When persons are liable because they acted in concert, all persons are jointly and severally liable for the share of comparative responsibility assigned to each person engaged in concerted activity.

第十六条对连带责任人之责任所做部分和解的效力

原告可从一负连带责任的侵权行为人处获得的赔偿应减去应分配给另一已和解,否则将对负连带责任的其他未和解被告承担分摊责任的侵权行为人的比较赔偿份额。该已和解侵权行为人的比较赔偿份额是分配给该已和解侵权行为人的比较责任份额与原告赔偿总额的乘积。
16 Effect of Partial Settlement on Jointly and Severally Liable Tortfeasors’ Liability
The plaintiff,s recoverable damages from a jointly and severally liable tortfeasor are reduced by the comparative share of damages attributable to a settling tortfeasor who otherwise would have been liable for contribution to jointly and severally liable defendants who do not settle. The settling tortfeasor,s comparative share of damages is the percentage of comparative responsibility assigned to the settling tortfeasor multiplied by the total damages of the plaintiff.

第十七条 独立侵权行为人的连带责任或单独责任

如有两人或多人的独立侵权行为构成某一不可分损害的法律原因,将由该案司法管辖区的法律确定这些侵权人应否承担连带责任、单独责任或连带责任与单独责任的某种混合责任形态 [16]
17 Joint and Several or Several Liability for Independent Tortfeasors
If the independent tortious conduct of two or more persons is a legal cause of an indivisible injury, the law of the applicable jurisdiction determines whether those persons are jointly and severally liable, severally liable, or liable under some hybrid of joint and several and several liability.

路径A:连带责任

Track A - Joint and Several Liability

A路径第18条 数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

如果两个或两个以上的共同侵权行为构成一不可分损害的法律原因,那么每个人均对该侵权行为造成的可获得损害赔偿承担连带责任。
A18 Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm
If the independent tortious conduct of two or more persons is a legal cause of an indivisible injury, each person is jointly and severally liable for the recoverable damages caused by the tortious conduct.

A路径第19条 责任分配:负连带责任的被告

如果一个被告和至少另一方当事人或者和解侵权行为人可能被事实调查人确认曾经参与了作为一不可分损害法律原因的侵权行为,上述每一方与和解侵权行为人都需遵从于由事实调查人分配的比较责任份额。
A19 Assignment of Responsibility: Jointly and Severally Liable Defendants
If one defendant and at least one other party or settling tortfeasor may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of an indivisible injury, each such party and settling tortfeasor is submitted to the factfinder for assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.

A路径第20条 无此条可适用于该路径

A20 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

A路径第21条 无此条可适用于该路径

A21 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

路径B:单独责任

Track B - Several Liability

B路径第18条 数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

如果两个或两个以上人的独立侵权行为均构成一不可分损害的法律原因,每个人均对事实调查人分配给该人的原告损害赔偿的比较责任份额承担单独责任,适用本重述第12条例外规定的除外。
B18 Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm
If two or more persons, independent tortious conduct is the legal cause of an indivisible injury, each defendant, subject to the exception stated in §12, is severally liable for the comparative share of the plaintiff,s damages assigned to that defendant by the factfinder.

B路径第19条 责任分配:负单独责任的被告

如果一名或者多名被告可能对一不可分损害承担单独责任,并且至少一位被告和一位另一方当事人、和解侵权行为人,或者特定人 [17]可能被事实调查人确定曾参与了作为受害人损害法律原因侵权行为,上述当事人、和解侵权行为人和特定人都遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
B19 Assignment of Responsibility: Severally Liable Defendants
If one or more defendants may be held severally liable for an indivisible injury, and at least one defendant and one other party, settling tortfeasor, or identified person may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury, each such party, settling tortfeasor, and other identified person is submitted to the factfinder for an assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.

B路径第20条 无此条可适用于该路径

B20 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

B路径第21条 无此条可适用于该路径

B21 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

路径C:结合再分配的连带责任

Track C - Joint and Several Liability with Reallocation

C路径第18条 数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

如果两个或两个以上的共同侵权行为构成一不可分损害的法律原因,那么根据本重述C路径第21条规定的再分配条款,每个人均对该侵权行为造成的可获得损害赔偿承担连带责任。
C18 Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm
If the independent tortious conduct of two or more persons is a legal cause of an indivisible injury, each person is jointly and severally liable for the recoverable damages caused by the tortious conduct, subject to the reallocation provision of §C21.

C路径第19条 责任分配:负连带责任的被告

如果存在一个被告和至少一个另一方、和解侵权行为人或如本重述C路径第20条(a)所描述的,其比较责任在法律上与原告不可分损害的责任分配有关的雇主,可能被事调查人发现参与了作为原告损害的一个法律原因的请求行为的每一方、每个和解侵权行为人和每个由本重述C路径第20条(a)许可的雇主,均需遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
C19 Assignment of Responsibility: Jointly and Severally Liable Defendants
If one defendant and at least one other party, settling tortfeasor, or employer described in §C20(a) whose comparative responsibility is legally relevant to apportioning liability for the plaintiff,s indivisible injury exist, each party, each settling tortfeasor, and, as permitted by §C20(a), each employer who may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury is submitted to the fact-finder for assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.

C路径第20条 分配给免责雇主的责任的效力

如果一方宣称原告的雇主对原告的损害负有一定的责任(,那么):
(a)如果该司法辖区适用的法律允许基于雇主的比较责任对可获得损害赔偿的减少,否则免于被作为原告的雇员起诉,或者允许被告对雇主的分摊主张,雇主可能被分配一定份额的比较责任,并且:(i)对可获得损害赔偿的减少为适用的法律所允许;或(ii)分摊的裁定为适用法律和雇主的比较责任所允许。
(b)如果该司法辖区适用的法律不允许基于雇主的比较责任减少可获得损害赔偿,或(不允许)对雇主提出分摊主张,则不能向雇主分配比较责任份额。
C20 Effect of Responsibility Assigned to Immune Employer
If a party alleges that the plaintiff,s employer bears some responsibility for the plaintiff,s injury:
(a) If the applicable law of the jurisdiction permits a reduction of recoverable damages based on the comparative responsibility of an employer otherwise immune from suit by the plaintiff-employee or permits a contribution claim by a defendant against the employer, the employer may be assigned a percentage of comparative responsibility and: (i) the recoverable damages are reduced as permitted by the applicable law; or (ii) contribution is awarded as permitted by the applicable law and the employer,s comparative responsibility.
(b) If the applicable law of the jurisdiction does not permit either a reduction of recoverable damages based on the comparative responsibility of an employer or a contribution claim against the employer, the employer may not be assigned a percentage of comparative responsibility.

C路径第21条 基于裁决不可执行的赔偿再分配

(a)除非如本条(b)款所规定,如果一个被告确认有关其分摊请求权的判决不可能从另一个被告那里完全受偿,法院将按照包括原告在内的其他各方被分配的比较责任份额,向他们重新分配赔偿金中不能受偿的部分。
(b)按照本条(a)款进行的重新分配,不适用于任何依据本重述第十二条(故意侵权行为人)或者第十五条(共同行为人)承担连带责任的被告。任何依据本重述第十三条(替代责任)或者第十四条(因未就某一故意侵权行为的具体风险对原告提供保护而承担责任的侵权行为人)而对分配给他人的比较过错份额承担法律责任的被告,不应接受的基于上述条款 [18]的责任的重新分配。
C21 Reallocation of Damages Based on Unenforceability of Judgment
(a)Except as provided in Subsection (b), if a defendant establishes that a judgment for contribution cannot be collected fully from another defendant, the court reallocates the uncollectible portion of the damages to all other parties, including the plaintiff, in proportion to the percentages of comparative responsibility assigned to the other parties.
(b) Reallocation under Subsection (a) is not available to any defendant subject to joint and several liability pursuant to §12 (intentional tortfeasors) or §15 (persons acting in concert). Any defendant legally liable for the share of comparative fault assigned to another person pursuant to §13 (vicarious liability) or §14 (tortfeasors who fail to protect the plaintiff from the specific risk of an intentional tort) may not obtain reallocation of the liability imposed by those Sections.

路径D:基于比较责任份额界限的混合责任

Track D - Hybrid Liability Based on Threshold Percentage of Comparative Responsibility

D路径第18条 数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

如果两个或两个以上的共同侵权行为构成一不可分损害的法律原因,每个被分配等于或者超过法律规定界限比例比较责任的被告负连带责任,每个被分配少于法律规定界限比例比较责任的被告负单独责任,适用本重述第十二条(故意侵权行为人)规定的除外。
D18 Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm
If the independent tortious conduct of two or more persons is a legal cause of an indivisible injury, each defendant who is assigned a percentage of comparative responsibility equal to or in excess of the legal threshold is jointly and severally liable, and each defendant who is assigned a percentage of comparative responsibility below the legal threshold is, subject to the exception in §12 (intentional tortfeasors), severally liable.

D路径第19条 责任分配:负连带责任的被告与负单独责任的被告

(a)如果一名或者多名被告可能对一不可分损害承担单独责任,并且至少一位被告和一位另一方当事人、和解侵权行为人,或者特定人可能被事实调查人确定曾参与了作为受害人损害法律原因侵权行为,上述当事人、和解侵权行为人和特定人都遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
(b)如果对所有被告均只能对一不可分损害适用连带责任,可能被事实调查人发现参与了作为原告损害的法律原因的侵权行为的每一方和每一和解侵权行为人都需遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
D19 Assignment of Responsibility: Both Jointly and Severally Liable and Severally Liable Defendants
(a)If one or more defendants may be held severally liable for an indivisible injury, and at least one defendant and one other party, settling tortfeasor, or identified person may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury, each such party, settling tortfeasor, and other identified person is submitted to the factfinder for an assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.
(b)If all defendants can only be held jointly and severally liable for an indivisible injury, each party and each settling tortfeasor who may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury are submitted to the fact-finder for an assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.

D路径第20条 无此条可适用于该路径

D20 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

D路径第21条 无此条可适用于该路径

D21 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

路径E:基于赔偿种类的混合责任

Track E - Hybrid Liability Based on Type of Damages 4

E路径第18条 数个侵权行为人对不可分伤害的责任

如果一个或多个人的独立侵权行为构成一不可分伤害的法律原因,每个被告均对可获得损害赔偿中的经济损害部分承担连带责任,依据本重述第十二条(故意侵权行为人)和第十五条(共同行为人)的除外;对该被告的非经济损害部分的比较份额承担单独责任。
E18 Liability of Multiple Tortfeasors for Indivisible Harm
If the independent tortious conduct of two or more persons is a legal cause of an indivisible injury, each defendant is jointly and severally liable for the economic-damages portion of the recoverable damages and, subject to the exceptions stated in §12 (intentional tortfeasors) and §15 (persons acting in concert), is severally liable for that defendant,s comparative share of the noneconomic damages.

E路径第19条 责任分配:对经济损害的连带责任以及对非经济赔偿的单独责任

(a)当原告仅可能获得一不可分损害的经济损失赔偿,并且至少一位被告和一位另一方当事人或和解侵权行为人可能被事实调查人发现曾参与了一项构成原告损害法律原因的侵权行为,上述各方和和解侵权行为人需遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
(b)当原告可能获得非经济损害赔偿,并且至少一位被告和一位另一方当事人、和解侵权行为人,或者特定人,可能被事实调查人发现曾参与了一项构成原告损害法律原因的侵权行为,上述各方、和解侵权行为人和该特定人需遵从事实调查人对比较责任份额的分配。
E19 Assignment of Responsibility: Joint and Several Liability for Economic Damages and Several Liability for Noneconomic Damages
(a)When plaintiff may recover only economic damages for an indivisible injury and at least one defendant and one other party or settling tortfeasor may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury, each such party and settling tortfeasor is submitted to the factfinder for assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.
(b) When plaintiff may recover noneconomic damages and at least one defendant and one other party, settling tortfeasor, or identified person may be found by the factfinder to have engaged in tortious conduct that was a legal cause of the plaintiff,s injury, each such party, settling tortfeasor, and identified person is submitted to the factfinder for assignment of a percentage of comparative responsibility.

E路径第20条 无此条可适用于该路径

E20 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

E路径第21条 无此条可适用于该路径

E21 [Not Applicable to This Track.]

第三题:分担与补偿 [19]

Topic 3- Contribution and Indemnity

第二十二条 补偿

(a)当两个或两个以上的人对同一伤害承担或可能承担责任时,其中一人通过和解或履行判决免除他人的全部或部分责任时,免除责任的一方有权(从该他人处)获得支付给原告数额的补偿,在以下情况还包括合理的法律费用支出:
(1)补偿人事先通过签订合同同意补偿受补偿人,或
(2)受补偿人
(i)除非因替代责任 [20],否则不对补偿人的侵权行为负责,或
(ii)除非补偿人是为受补偿人提供产品的卖方,且受补偿人并非单独具有可责难性,否则不负责任。
(b)有权依照合同获得补偿的人,即使在寻求补偿的人的对方当事人并不对原告负责的情况下,仍然可以行使补偿请求权。
22 Indemnity
(a)When two or more persons are or may be liable for the same harm and one of them discharges the liability of another in whole or in part by settlement or discharge of judgment, the person discharging the liability is entitled to recover indemnity in the amount paid to the plaintiff, plus reasonable legal expenses, if:
(1)the indemnitor has agreed by contract to indemnify the indemnitee, or
(2) the indemnitee
(i)was not liable except vicariously for the tort of the indemnitor, or
(ii)was not liable except as a seller of a product supplied to the indemnitee by the indemnitor and the indemnitee was not independently culpable.
(b) A person who is otherwise entitled to recover indemnity pursuant to contract may do so even if the party against whom indemnity is sought would not be liable to the plaintiff.

第二十三条 分担

(a)当两人或多人对或可能对同一伤害承担责任而其中一人已通过和解或履行裁决承担他人责任时,承担他人责任的该人有权向该他人追偿责任分担,除非该他人此前已与原告达成有效的和解、得到原告的免除。
(b)有权追偿责任分担的人可以获得不多于该人支付给原告的数额中超出该人比较责任份额的部分。
(c)依据第22条享有补偿请求权的一方对该方不享有分摊权,并且不对该方负有分摊责任。
23 Contribution
(a)When two or more persons are or may be liable for the same harm and one of them discharges the liability of another by settlement or discharge of judgment, the person discharging the liability is entitled to recover contribution from the other, unless the other previously had a valid settlement and release from the plaintiff.
(b) A person entitled to recover contribution may recover no more than the amount paid to the plaintiff in excess of the person,s comparative share of responsibility.
(c) A person who has a right of indemnity against another person under §22 does not have a right of contribution against that person and is not subject to liability for contribution to that person.

第四题:和解

Topic 4- Settlement

第二十四条 和解的定义与效力

(a)和解是一份具有法律强制性的协议,在该协议中请求权人同意在协议之外,不再针对该特别损害寻求额外赔偿,或者向部分或所有可能对相关损害或主张负责的人提出主张。
(b)通过和解方式免除责任的人,在和解协议所涵盖的特别损害或者主张的范围内,可能产生的对请求权人的未来责任也得到了免除,但该和解协议并不免除任何其他人的责任。
24 Definition and Effect of Settlement
 (a) A settlement is a legally enforceable agreement in which a claimant agrees not to seek recovery outside the agreement for specified injuries or claims from some or all of the persons who might be liable for those injuries or claims.
(b) Persons released from liability by the terms of a settlement are relieved of further liability to the claimant for the injuries or claims covered by the agreement, but the agreement does not discharge any other person from liability.

第二十五条 通过履行判决满足诉讼请求

(a)当一项判决包括了对原告因遭受的一项不可分损害而可获得损害赔偿的损害范围的确定,并提供原告可从被告中的一个或多个处获得赔偿时,对原告可获得损害赔偿的全额支付,构成了对原告享有的对所有对原告所受该不可分损害负有法律责任的侵权行为人的请求权的满足。
(b)当一项判决包括了对原告因遭受的一项不可分损害而可获得损害赔偿的损害范围的确定,并提供原告可从多个共同被告处获得赔偿时,该案被告中的一个或者多个支付的少于原告可获得损害赔偿总额的赔偿等额减少原告可从该案被告获得的赔偿额。
(c)当一项确认了少于或者可能少于原告可获得损害赔偿数额的判决,是针对一个或者多个侵权行为人,而他们中没有任何人承担连带责任时,对判决确定的该赔偿额的支付并不构成对原告针对所有侵权行为人权利的满足。
25 Satisfaction of Claim Through Discharge of Judgment
(a)When a judgment includes a determination of the entirety of recoverable damages suffered by the plaintiff for an indivisible injury and provides for their recovery by the plaintiff against one or more of the defendants, payment of the full amount of recoverable damages constitutes a satisfaction of the plaintiff,s rights against all tortfeasors legally responsible for the plaintiff,s indivisible injury.
(b)When a judgment includes a determination of the entirety of recoverable damages suffered by the plaintiff for an indivisible injury and provides for their recovery by the plaintiff against multiple defendants, payment by one or more judgment defendants of less than the full amount of the recoverable damages constitutes a reduction of the plaintiff,s right to recover from the judgment defendants in the amount of the value of the payment.
(c) When a judgment against one or more tortfeasors, none of whom is jointly and severally liable, is for an amount that is or may be less than all of the recoverable damages by the plaintiff, payment of the amount of the judgment does not constitute a satisfaction of the plaintiff,s rights against all tortfeasors.

第五题:损害可依因果关系分割时的责任分担

Topic 5- Apportionment of Liability when Damages can be Divided by Causation

第二十六条 损害可依因果关系分割时的责任分担

(a)当对某一损害的赔偿可依因果关系被分割时,事实调查人首先将其分割为其不可再分的组成部分,然后依据上述第一至四题的规定,就每一不可再分的组成部分单独分配责任。
(b)当有关证据提供了可使事实调查人确定以下事项的合理依据时,赔偿可依因果关系被分割;
(1)被事实调查人向其分配责任份额的一方当事人或其他相关人,其任何具有法律上可责难性的行为,构成少于原告所寻求获得的全部赔偿额 [21]的一项法律原因,并且;
(2)此赔偿数额为该行为单独造成。
否则,赔偿便不可分割,因此有关损害也不可分割。对一不可分损害的责任应依据第一至四题进行分配。
26 Apportionment of Liability When Damages Can Be Divided by Causation
(a) When damages for an injury can be divided by causation, the factfinder first divides them into their indivisible component parts and separately apportions liability for each indivisible component part under Topics 1 through 4.
(b) Damages can be divided by causation when the evidence provides a reasonable basis for the factfinder to determine:
(1) that any legally culpable conduct of a party or other relevant person to whom the fact-finder assigns a percentage of responsibility was a legal cause of less than the entire damages for which the plaintiff seeks recovery and
(2) the amount of damages separately caused by that conduct.
Otherwise, the damages are indivisible and thus the injury is indivisible. Liability for an indivisible injury is apportioned under Topics 1 through 4.
注释:
[1] “Topic”译者翻译为“题”。如果把“责任分担”作为一编的话,相当于“章”。编、章、节、目一般对应的词汇是“Title”、“Chapter”、“Section”、“paragraph”,参见《法国民法典》法文版、英文版。
     [2] 英文中有一系列关于损害、伤害的用语,一般情况下并无本质上的区别,在本译文中,除中国侵权法上有直接对应用语外,译者对相关词汇采用统一的对应翻译,以便在需要的时候读者可以参照英文原文进行理解:harm-伤害、Injury-(人身)损害、damage-(财产)损害、Loss-损失。另外,关于 “damages”,作为单词应翻译为“损害赔偿金”,但有时也指“damage”(损害)的复数形式,用于指称各种损害,译者下文根据上下文进行对应翻译,但部分翻译可能还有待进一步考证。
     [3] “claim”,可以译为“主张”或者“诉讼请求”,译文根据用语习惯和必要时区别于诉讼程序上的请求,进行用语选择。
     [4] “recover”是获得(损害赔偿)的意思,“recovery”是“赔偿金”。
     [5] 关于“ameliorative doctrines”,直译为“改良学说”,许传玺先生译为“缓和学说”,为意译。译者认为,中国民法上所谓“缓和学说”用语主要见于“物权法定原则”,其对应的是“严格的物权法定主义”。而从本条替代《美国侵权法重述·第二次》第463条的目的来看,“第463条与有过失的定义:与有过失,是指原告的行为低于为保护自己应当遵守的标准,且该行为是与被告的过失共同导致原告遭受伤害的协助原因。”原规定实际上是降低了原告的注意义务,使得证明原告过失的标准更加的严格,以避免因轻微过失而适用混合过失(contributory liability)而完全不能受偿的不公平情况发生。因此,译者认为许传玺先生翻译的“缓和学说活”的目的是为了表达相关学说“缓和”了原告的过失,但并不符合中国民法学界的用语习惯,恰恰容易造成误解,因此翻译为“严格学说”似乎更为合适。所谓“严格学说”,即证明标准更加严格。从“are abolished”和“doctrines”的复数用语,以及参考后附评论,特别适用于原告过失证明的“严格责任”并不止一种,该条文的内容也在于废止相关所有的“严格学说”,因此笔者增加了“各种”,译为“各种严格学说均已被废止”。
     [6] 该条规定的是“派生诉讼”(derivative action)中的原告过失问题。派生诉讼,常见于“股东派生诉讼”,在侵权法上,是指基于他人受伤害而提起的诉讼,如妻子受到伤害后,丈夫以其丧失了配偶权为由,向侵害人提起的诉讼。派生诉讼导致的是派生责任(derivative liablity),主要有两种:1、原告就侵害人对他人造成的损害要求赔偿;2、原告对于给自己造成的损害要求赔偿,而该损害是以侵害人对他人的不法行为作为近因所造成的。
     [7] “decedent”直译为“死者”,“decedent’s estate”是遗产的意思,“estate’s decedent”应为遗产的原所有人,考虑到中国《继承法》包含了继承取得和其他死因取得(如遗赠),这里意译为“被继承人”。
     [8] “estate”是英美财产法的核心概念。当estate被用于合伙财产、信托财产,尤指涉及财产管理(administration)的死者遗产、破产财产的财产、解散的合伙财产等。在用于这些情况下,estate具有法律拟制人格的含义,财产被认为代表或者延续它所归属者的人格。因此,才会出现“遗产的赔偿额”(estate 's recovery)和“可归责于财产的过失”(negligence imputed to the estate)的说法。
     [9] 这里的“原告过失”包括“原告应为其过失负责的其他人的过失”,参见条文。
     [10] 这里的“law and statute”并列的说法,前者应该是泛指包括判例法在内的法律规范,后者是制定法。
     [11] “Joint and Several Liability”直译为“连带与单独责任”,按照我国民法的用语习惯,应意译为“连带责任”。英美法上,区分“Joint and Several Liability”、“joint liability”和“several liability”。“Joint and Several Liability”是在侵权法和合同法中,债权人自由决定由全体债务人或者其中的一人或者数人承担,所以每个债务人实际上都独立的对全部债务负责。在债务人之间,某一偿付人有权从其他未偿付人处得到分摊。这相当于我国民法上的“连带责任”。“joint liability”是由两人或者两人以上共同承担的责任,若其中一人被起诉,则其可要求其余人必须作为共同被告应诉;若其中一人死亡,则其责任由其他生存者承担,应翻译为“共同责任”,与大陆法系的“不真正连带”有所类似,但不完全相同。“several liability”是指两人或多人对原告的请求各自承担的责任,应翻译为“单独责任”。
     [12] “recoverable damages”应翻译为“可获得损害赔偿”,根据需要会进行一定的句式措辞调整。
     [13] “several liability”直译为“个别责任”,考虑到我国侵权法理论的用语习惯,译者译为“单独责任”。参见《元照》1251。
     [14] “替代责任”也可以翻译为“转承责任”,相对来说,替代责任更通用一些。
     [15] “in concert”直译为“协同”,但考虑到中国侵权法的用语习惯,译者意译为“共同”。
     [16]  原文中并无“形态”对应的词汇,基于中国侵权行为法提出的“侵权责任形态”理论,译者增加了该表达,以求准确体现愿意。关于“侵权责任形态”理论的提出,参见杨立新:《侵权责任形态研究》(《河南省政法管理干部学院学报》2004年第1期。)一文和《侵权法论》(第二/三版)。
     [17] “identified person”译者暂译为“特定人”,确切含义还需要考查,下文同。
     [18] 应是指本重述第十三、十四条。
     [19] “indemnity”应译为“补偿”,许传玺先生翻译为“免责”,应该是错误的。(a)款为损失补偿,(b)款为责任补偿。
     [20] “vicariously”,译者认为承担的是“vicarious liability”,但并不确定。
     [21] 即“部分赔偿额”,此为英美法上较为严谨的法律表达方式,译者注。

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